Fasciola hepaticaalso known as the Wurm Fasciola liver fluke or sheep liver flukeis a parasitic trematode see more or flatworma type of helminth of the class Trematodaphylum Platyhelminthes. It infects the livers of various mammalsincluding humans. The disease caused by the fluke is called fasciolosis or fascioliasis, which is a type of helminthiasis and has been Wurm Fasciola as a neglected Wurm Fasciola disease.
These two flukes are sister species; they share many morphological features and can mate with Wurm Fasciola other. Fasciola welchen Traum Würmer occurs in the liver of a definitive host and its lifecycle is indirect.
Definitive hosts of the fluke are cattlesheepand buffaloes. Wild ruminants and other mammals, including humans, can act as definitive hosts as Würmer leben die Muskeln in. Although several lymnaeid species susceptible to F.
Lymnaea viatorL. The metacercariae are released from the freshwater snail as go hereand form cysts on Wurm Fasciola surfaces including aquatic vegetation. The mammalian host then eats this vegetation and can become Wurm Fasciola. Humans can often acquire these infections through eating freshwater plants such as watercress.
Inside the duodenum of the mammalian host, the metacercariae are released from within their cysts. From the duodenum Wurm Fasciola, they burrow through the lining of the intestine and into http://kaymacke.de/vovudyhikis/l-aus-dem-schneckenleinsamen.php peritoneal cavity.
They then migrate through the intestines and liverand into the bile ducts. Inside the bile ductsthey develop into an adult fluke. The adult flukes Wurm Fasciola then produce up to 25, eggs per Wurm Fasciola per visit web page. Once in freshwater, the eggs become embryonatedallowing them to hatch as miracidiawhich then Wurm Fasciola a suitable intermediate snail host of the Lymnaeidae family.
Inside this snail, the miracidia develop into sporocysts Wurm Fasciola, then to rediaethen to cercariae. The Wurm Fasciola are released from the snail to form metacercariae and the life Wurm Fasciola begins again.
The oral sucker is small but powerful and is located at the end of a cone-shape projection at the anterior end. The acetabulum is a larger sucker than Wurm Fasciola oral sucker and is located at the anterior end. The outer surface of the fluke is called the tegument. This is composed Wurm Fasciola scleroproteinand Wurm Fasciola primary function is to protect the fluke from the destructive digestive system Wurm Fasciola the host.
Initially, these spines are single-pointed, then, just prior to the fluke entering the bile ductsthey become multipointed. At the anterior end of the flukeWurm Fasciola spines have between 10 and 15 points, whereas at the posterior end, they have up to 30 points.
This means it is made from the fusion of many cells, each containing Wurm Fasciola nucleusto produce a multinucleated cell membrane.
In the case of F. Thus, this region is referred to as anucleate. Instead, the nuclei are found in the cell bodies, also known as tegumental cells, these connect to the outer cytoplasm via thin cytoplasmic strands. The tegumental cells contain the usual cytoplasmic organelles mitochondriaGolgi bodiesand endoplasmic reticulum. Studies have shown that certain parts of the tegument in this case, the antigen named Teg can actually suppress the immune response of the mammalian Wurm Fasciola. This means that the fluke is able Wurm Fasciola weaken the immune responseand increase its chances Wurm Fasciola a successful infection.
A successful infection is needed for the fluke to have enough time to develop into an adult and continue its lifecycle. The alimentary canal of F. The mouth is located within the anterior Wurm Fasciola on the ventral side of the fluke.
This mouth leads to the pharynxwhich is then see more by a narrow oesophagus.
The oesophagus, which Wurm Fasciola lined with a thin layer of epithelial cellsthen opens up into the large intestine. As no anus is present, the intestine branches, with each branch ending blindly near the posterior end of the body.
They use their mouth suckers to pull off and suck up food, bilelymphand tissue pieces from the walls of the bile ducts. The waste materials are egested through the mouth. The nonwaste matter is adsorbed back in through the tegument Wurm Fasciola the general surface of the fluke.
The tegument facilitates this adsorption by containing many small folds to increase the surface area. Glycogen taken from within the host is broken down by glycolysis to produce carbon dioxide and fatty acids.
This process provides the fluke with energy. The free-living stages of the parasite are thought to respire aerobicallyto gain the most energy from their environment. This canal Wurm Fasciola to the excretory pore at the posterior end of the fluke. This main canal branches into four sections within the Wurm Fasciola and ventral regions of the body.
The role of F. These cells are modified parenchyme Wurm Fasciola. Flame cells are therefore primarily used to remove excess water. The nerve system of F. Around the Wurm Fasciola is a nerve ringwhich connects the two nerve ganglia together.
The nerves stem Wurm Fasciola this ring, reaching the posterior end of the body. At the posterior end, one pair of nerves becomes thicker than the others; these are known as the lateral nerve cords.
From these lateral nerve cords, the other nerves branch. Sensory organs are absent from F. The male and female reproductive organs open up into the same chamber within the body, which Wurm Fasciola called the genital atrium.
The Wurm Fasciola atrium is an ectodermal sac which opens up to the outside of the fluke via a genital pore. From the epithelium lining of the tubules, sperm is produced. The sperm then passes into the vas deferens Wurm Fasciola then into the seminal vesicle.
From Wurm Fasciola seminal vesicle projects the Wurm Fasciola ductand this Wurm Fasciola into the genital atrium, and many Wurm Fasciola glands surround click to see more opening. From here, a short oviduct passes to the vitelline duct. This duct connects, via a junction, the ovaries, Wurm Fasciola uterusand the yolk reservoir.
From this junction, the uterus opens into the genital atrium; this opening is surrounded by Mehlis glands. In some flukes, the terminal end of the uterus is strengthened with muscles Wurm Fasciola spines. The miracidia can reproduce Wurm Fasciola within the intermediate snail host. Originating in Europe, it has expanded to colonize over 50 countries, covering all continents except Antarctica.
Climate affects both F. For example, the development of F. In addition, they both require high levels of moisture in the air, as both are at risk of desiccation.
Due to this, the prevalencealong with the intensity of infection, of Wurm Fasciola. Their pharynges Wurm Fasciola help them to suck onto the tissues within the body, particularly within the bile ducts. Wurm Fasciola genome for F. The genome contains many polymorphisms wenn nicht mit Würmern zu kämpfen, dass Will, and this represents the potential for the fluke to evolve and rapidly adapt to changes in the environment, such as click at this page availability and drug or vaccine interventions.
For more information on the epidemiology — see the disease page, fasciolosis. Infection begins when cyst-covered aquatic vegetation is eaten or when water containing metacercariae Wurm Fasciola drunk. In the United KingdomF. Humans become infected by eating watercress or by drinking 'Emoliente', Wurm Fasciola Peruvian drink that uses drops of watercress juice.
Wurm Fasciola and sheep are infected when Wurm Fasciola consume the infectious stage of the parasite from low-lying, marshy pasture. Human infections have been reported from more than 75 countries around the world. In Asia and Africa, people are infected both by F. The presence of F. Cattle co-infected with F.
Therefore, an infection from F. Human symptoms vary depending on whether the disease is chronic or acute. During the acute phase, here immature Wurm Fasciola begin penetrating the gut, causing symptoms of fever, nausea, swollen liver, skin rashes, and extreme abdominal pain.
Fasciolosis is an important cause of both production and Wurm Fasciola losses in the dairy and meat industries. Over the years, the prevalence has increased Wurm Fasciola it is likely to continue increasing in the future. The two chemicals used are triclabendazole and bithionol. Http://kaymacke.de/vovudyhikis/wuermer-koennen-helle-cal-sein.phpwhich is widely used for many helminthic parasites, has low effectivity against F.
One important method is through the strict control over the growth and sales of edible water plants Wurm Fasciola as watercress. This is particularly important in highly endemic areas. Some farms are irrigated with polluted water, hence, vegetables farmed from Wurm Fasciola land should be thoroughly washed and cooked before being eaten.
The best way to Wurm Fasciola fasciolosis is by reducing the lymnaeid snail population or separating livestock from areas with these snails. A Wurm Fasciola may be made by finding yellow-brown eggs in the stool. They are indistinguishable from the eggs of Fascioloides Wurm Fasciolaalthough the eggs of F. If a patient has eaten infected liver, and the eggs pass through the body and out via the faeces, a false positive result to the Wurm Fasciola can occur.
Daily examination during a liver-free diet will unmask this false diagnosis.
Diese Eier überleben dort 2 bis 6 Monate. Die Eier reifen im Wasser. Die Wimpernlarven schwimmen nach dem Schlüpfen mit Hilfe ihrer Zilienbis sie einen Zwischenwirt finden. Dies muss Wurm Fasciola von 24 Stunden geschehen, da die Mirazidien ansonsten absterben. In Australien Wurm Fasciola der Zwischenwirt Lymnaea tomentosa Wurm Fasciola, in Nordamerika sind es Fossaria modicella und Fossaria bulimoides. In der Schnecke entwickelt sich die Larve zur Sporozyste weiter, in der sich mehrere Redien bilden, die wiederum Tochterredien bilden, bis sich aus Wurm Fasciola Schwanzlarven Zerkarien entwickelt haben.
Dieser Vorgang dauert ca. Die Zerkarien verlassen aktiv die Schnecke und heften sich dicht unter der Wasseroberfläche an Pflanzen o. Während dieses Vorgangs verlieren sie ihren Schwanz. Das Überleben auch unter europäischen Winterbedingungen erscheint möglich. Wurm Fasciola Sonnenlicht sowie hohe Luftfeuchtigkeit bei Extremtemperaturen scheint die Überlebensdauer zu beeinträchtigen.
Von diesen Pflanzen gelangen sie wiederum in den Endwirt und können Wurm Fasciola heranwachsen. Seltene Infektionen beim Menschen in Europa sind durch Genuss roher Brunnenkresseseltener auch Löwenzahn sowie Fallobstbesonders aus verseuchtem Weideland bekannt bzw. Wurm Fasciola einer Stunde nach Aufnahme beginnen die Metazerkarien sich im Dünndarm des Wurm Fasciola zu exzystieren.
Nach dem Durchdringen der Dünndarmwand finden sie sich innerhalb von 2 Wurm Fasciola in der Bauchhöhle. Nach 24 Stunden Wurm im Herzen eines Mannes sich die Wurm Fasciola zu reifenden Würmern Larvennach 48 Stunden beginnen diese die Leberkapsel zu durchdringen, die Mehrzahl hat das Leber parenchym innerhalb von 6 Tagen erreicht.
In der Leber wandern sie für 5 bis 6 Wochen, sich direkt von Lebergewebe ernährend. Die Wurm Fasciola beginnt nach Untersuchungen bei Schafen und Rindern ca.
Entwicklungszyklus [ Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten ] Ein Wurm Fasciola Leberegel legt im Gallengangsystem des Endwirtes Eier ab, http://kaymacke.de/vovudyhikis/wie-die-wuermer-in-der-menschlichen-form-leben.php mit dem Kot in die Umwelt gelangen.
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